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Literature Review

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of education causing widespread disruptions for low-income families, particularly those from racialized communities who have fewer resources and supports available. The research team conducted a literature review of relevant articles and sources from 2010-2021 related to the objectives of the project. This was supplemented with primary data collection in June-July 2021 involving surveys with parents, students, and teachers, and a focus group with educators involved in YAAACE's Community School Initiative (CSI). As a collective, this led to many themes being identified including: challenges with parental engagement, effective pedagogies and transitions, teacher training and support in delivering the structured curriculum, inequitable access to technology, and student motivation and engagement. Click on any of the titles to read full literature reviews


Click on the title for a full literature review on the impacts of the digital divide on student learning. In Canada, public health measures implemented in schools across the provinces and territories have repeatedly adjusted over time in response to COVID-19, resulting in a negative impact on very young children and those from marginalized groups. Canada’s digital divide is a geographic issue with social, economic, and cultural contexts, and it intersects with categories of social identities like race, class, gender, and age. Understanding the technological barriers and challenges associated with remote learning is essential to increase engagement and online participation in distant learning.

Click on the title for a full literature review on the impacts of structured programming. Ontario is now in its second year of education disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Schools providing an environment for extra-curricular and after-school programs have not been able to support their student’s education or psychosocial developmental needs—with many programs struggling to adjust to remote delivery. Critically, school closures meant that the achievement gap was widening for communities who regularly accessed these programs to supplement their learning needs.

Click on the title for a full literature review on parental engagement with student learning. In schools, increased parental engagement has improved student educational achievement, learning, and social skills and behaviour. However, school closures prompted by the global outbreak of COVID-19 have impacted how parents are involved in their child’s educational experience. This literature review explores parental engagement to support student learning.

Click on the title for the full literature review on barriers to teaching and learning for under-resourced communities. COVID-19 exacerbated systemic barriers and inequalities and has led to a loss of student and learning and increased opportunity gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged families.

Click on the title for a full literature review on teacher training and effective pedagogy. The pandemic caused teachers to move beyond their traditional pedagogical approaches used in-person, and highlighted the need for teacher training to prepare educators for in-person, remote, and blended learning.

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